To review from Part 1 of this series, exosomes are nano particles that are signals to rejuvenate your cells. They improve mitochondrial function, help kick out Zombie cells, and decrease inflammation. They stimulate your natural stem cells to come alive and replace old cells in your organs, rejuvenating them and helping them function in a healthier and younger fashion.

Inflammation and Chronic Medical Problems

Excess inflammation has been blamed for the root cause of all chronic medical conditions that you may acquire as you age. These include heart disease, the number one cause of death, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, arthritis and cancers. Reducing inflammation thus is a primary goal when it comes to helping you live longer and with better quality.

Exosomes reduce inflammation through many processes, as was discussed in Part 1. This reduction of inflammation can thus give exosomes the potential power to reduce your risk of suffering from heart disease, lung disease and cancers. Other potential benefits could include reduce risk of developing diabetes, cartilage damage, systemic diseases, soft tissue repair and neuro-inflammatory diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

These signaling molecules, when injected into your body, travel around your body like tiny ambulances, they find the troubled area, i.e. areas on inflammation, and fix it. The Fix is to calm the inflammation, stimulate the stem cells in the area to become active to form new tissue cells, and stimulate repair of the area. This type of upkeep helps keep your tissues healthier to function better and with less pain. Exosomes are becoming a great option as an anti-aging therapy.

In order for exosomes to work best, you must also embrace the right lifestyle. Thus, losing weight and maintaining the proper diet is important as is exercising regularly and maintaining proper hormone levels. But now you have this new potential treatment that can boost your life even more.

Increase Your Vascular Health

All your organs need oxygen and nutrients that are brought to them via your blood vessels and your heart, i.e. your cardiovascular system. Damage to the inside lining of your blood vessels can occur as you age. This lining, called endothelium, can get damaged due to high blood pressure or deposition of the small bad granules of cholesterol that can collect below the endothelial lining.

Your body tries to repair this by sending in immune cells. Unfortunately, if excess, the excess immune cells needed can result in inflammation of the damaged area. If this damage continues, narrowing of the arterial channel can occur with decreased blood supply to the organ. If an artery in the heart becomes excessively inflamed, it could rupture and cause a heart attack.

Heart disease has been associated with development of dementias, such as Alzheimer’s disease, and cancers.[1] All of them are associated with excess inflammation. Exosomes thus could potentially decrease your risk of developing these chronic conditions by decreasing inflammation and rejuvenating the cells within your vessels.[2] In turn this improved vascular health would benefit the brain to potentially decrease dementias, and to decrease risks of cancer formation.

Osteoarthritis: Joint Pain of Old Age

As you age, you may develop inflammation of your joints called osteoarthritis. This is a very painful and debilitating disease that may cause severe disability and disfigurement. Exosomes have been shown to calm down the immune system in your joints and decrease inflammation. This in turn results in pain relief.

However, as you recall exosomes also can stimulate stem cells to come alive, replace and rejuvenate the tissues of your body. Thus, exosomes may help calm down this inflammation to lessen the joint pain. In so doing, your natural repair process may be able to happen more efficiently.[3]

In addition, the exosomes may stimulate formation of new tissue in the joints by awakening your natural stem cells that are still present in the area. These tissues could include the cartilage in your knees,[4] the ligaments that might have gotten injured, stretched, or torn; or tendons and muscles that may have been damaged from multiple reasons. Cartilage repair is very beneficial to improving joint health and exosomes may stimulate this repair and rejuvenation.[5]

Neurodegenerative Diseases: Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease

An exciting potential application of exosomes is for calming down the inflammation that is the root cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Exosomes have been shown to decrease the levels of certain cytokines in the blood. It is thought that, because they are signaling molecules, they modulate microglial activation, which are the cells that become inflamed in these disorders.[6] They may also decrease the beta amyloid deposition that accumulates on neurons and is thought to be part of the pathologic process of Alzheimer’s disease.[7]

Because exosomes gravitate to, attach onto, and modulate inflamed tissues they are ideal carriers to not only calm the inflammation through their signaling mechanisms, but also to potentially carry other medicinal compounds to these areas that might help in the resolution of the pathologic changes that are characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases.[8] They bring a sense of hope in the future cure of these problems if they ultimately are shown to provide such amazing actions safely.[9]

Conclusion

Exosomes are a new promising signaling compounds that may decrease inflammatory conditions that cause age-related conditions within the body. Inflammation is the root cause of chronic medical disease, whether it be Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, arthritis, or cancers. Exosomes have been used in neurodegenerative disorders and orthopedic disorders with good results. They may also be beneficial for others, but further studies need to be done to determine this.

 

Note: Exosomes are still in the early stages of development. They have not been evaluated by the FDA and therefore use of them are considered off-label. They have not been approved for the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, or cure for medical conditions.

[1][1] https://newsroom.heart.org/news/heart-disease-and-cancer-risk-may-be-linked

[2] Chang, Y.-H., Wu, K.-C., Harn, H.-J., Lin, S.-Z., & Ding, D.-C. (2018). Exosomes and Stem Cells in Degenerative Disease Diagnosis and Therapy. Cell Transplantation, 27(3), 349–363. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963689717723636

[3] Cosenza, S., Ruiz, M., Toupet, K. et al. Mesenchymal stem cells derived exosomes and microparticles protect cartilage and bone from degradation in osteoarthritis. Sci Rep 7, 16214 (2017) doi:10.1038/s41598-017-15376-8

[4] Wang, Y., Yu, D., Liu, Z. et al. Exosomes from embryonic mesenchymal stem cells alleviate osteoarthritis through balancing synthesis and degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix. Stem Cell Res Ther 8, 189 (2017) doi:10.1186/s13287-017-0632-0

[5] Toh WS, et al. MSC exosome as a cell-free MSC therapy for cartilage regeneration: Implications for osteoarthritis treatment. Seminars in Cell & Develop Biology. 67, July 2017: 56-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2016.11.008

[6] Perets N, et al. Golden Exosomes Selectively Target Brain Pathologies in Neurodegenerative and Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Nano Lett. 2019, 19, 6, 3422-3431. doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b04148

[7] Malm T, et al. Exosomes in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurochem Internat. July 2016. 97:193-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2016.04.011

[8] Katsuda T, et al. The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell‐derived extracellular vesicles. Proteomics, 13:10-11. Jan 2013. doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201200373

[9] Jiang L. et al Exosomes in Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:3329-3335. DOI: 10.12659/MSM.914027